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Hebrew

Hebrew characters

Disclaimer

This just a look-up table, not a full exposition of the organisation of the Masoretic system.

Transcriptions

The ETCBC transcription is used by the ETCBC. It has entries for all accents, but not for text-critical annotations such as uncertainty, and correction. The Abegg transcription is used in the Dead Sea scrolls. It has no entries for accents, but it has a repertoire of text-critical marks. We have back translated the latter to etcbc-compatible variants and entered them in the etcbc column, although they are not strictly etcbc marks.

Phonetics

The phonetic representation is meant as a tentative 1-1 correspondence with pronunciation, not with the script. See phono.ipynb, where the phonetic transcription is computed and thoroughly documented.

Consonants

Details
  • For most consonants: an inner dot is a dagesh forte.
  • For the בגדכפת consonants: an inner dot is either a dagesh forte or a dagesh lene.
  • When the ה contains a dot, it is called a mappiq.
transcription (etcbc) transcription (Abegg) glyph phonetic remarks name unicode
> a א ʔ when not *mater lectionis* *letter* alef 05D0
B b ב bb
b
v
forte
lene
normal
*letter* bet 05D1
G g ג gg
g
forte
lene
normal
*letter* gimel 05D2
D d ד dd
d
forte
lene
normal
*letter* dalet 05D3
H h ה h also with *mappiq*; when not *mater lectionis* *letter* he 05D4
W w ו ww
w
û
forte
when not part of a long vowel
with dagesh as vowel
*letter* vav 05D5
Z z ז zz
z
forte
normal
*letter* zayin 05D6
X j ח *letter* het 05D7
V f ט *letter* tet 05D8
J y י yy
y
ʸ
forte
when not part of long vowel
in front of final ו
*letter* yod 05D9
K k כ kk
k
forte
lene
normal
*letter* kaf 05DB
k K ך k
forte
normal
*letter* final kaf 05DA
L l ל ll
l
forte
normal
*letter* lamed 05DC
M m מ mm
m
forte
normal
*letter* mem 05DE
m M ם m *letter* final mem 05DD
N n נ nn
n
forte
normal
*letter* nun 05E0
n N ן n *letter* final nun 05DF
S s ס ss
s
forte
normal
*letter* samekh 05E1
< o ע ʕ *letter* ayin 05E2
P p פ pp
p
f
forte
lene
normal
*letter* pe 05E4
p P ף p
f
forte
normal
*letter* final pe 05E3
Y x צ ṣṣ
forte
normal
*letter* tsadi 05E6
y X ץ *letter* final tsadi 05E5
Q q ק qq
q
forte
normal
*letter* qof 05E7
R r ר rr
r
forte
normal
*letter* resh 05E8
# C ש ŝ *letter* shin without dot 05E9
C v שׁ šš
š
forte
normal
*letter* shin with shin dot FB2A
F c שׂ śś
ś
forte
normal
*letter* shin with sin dot FB2B
T t ת tt
t
forte
lene
normal
*letter* tav 05EA

Vowels

Qere Ketiv

The phonetics follows the qere, not the ketiv, when they are different. In that case a * is added.

Tetragrammaton

The tetragrammaton יהוה is (vowel)-pointed in different ways; the phonetics follows the pointing, but the tetragrammaton is put between [ ].

transcription (etcbc) transcription (Abegg) glyph phonetic remarks name unicode
A A Å ַ a
normal
*furtive*
*point* patah 05B7
:A S ֲ *point* hataf patah 05B2
@ D ∂ Î ָ ā
o
gadol
qatan
*point* qamats 05B8
:@ F ƒ Ï ֳ *point* hataf qamats 05B3
E R ® ‰ ֶ e
normal
with following י
*point* segol 05B6
:E T ֱ
ᵉʸ
normal
with following י
*point* hataf segol 05B1
; E é ´ ֵ ê
ē
with following י
alone
*point* tsere 05B5
I I ˆ î Ê ִ î
i
with following י
alone
*point* hiriq 05B4
O O ø ֹ ô
ō
with following ו
alone
*point* holam 05B9
U U ü ¨ ֻ u *point* qubuts 05BB
: V √ J ◊ ְ left out if silent *point* sheva 05B0

Other points and marks

transcription (etcbc) transcription (Abegg) glyph phonetic remarks name unicode
. ; … Ú ¥ Ω ּ *point* dagesh or mapiq 05BC
.c ׁ *point* shin dot 05C1
.f ׂ *point* sin dot 05C2
, ֿ *point* rafe 05BF
35 ֽ ˈ *point* meteg 05BD
45 ֽ ˈ *point* meteg 05BD
75 ֽ ˈ *point* meteg 05BD
95 ֽ ˈ *point* meteg 05BD
52 ׄ ˈ *mark* upper dot 05C4
53 ׅ ˈ *mark* lower dot 05C5
* ֯ *mark* masora circle 05AF

Punctuation

Details

Some specialties in the Masoretic system are not reflected in the phonetics:

  • setumah ס;
  • petuhah ף;
  • nun-hafuka ̇׆.
transcription (etcbc) transcription (Abegg) glyph phonetic remarks name unicode
00 . ׃ . *punctuation* sof pasuq 05C3
׆ *punctuation* nun hafukha 05C6
& - ־ - *punctuation* maqaf 05BE
_   (non breaking space)   space 0020
0000 ± ׃׃ Dead Sea scrolls. We use as Hebrew character a double sof pasuq. paleo-divider 05C3 05C3
' / ׳ Dead Sea scrolls. We use as Hebrew character a geresh. morpheme-break 05F3

Hybrid

Details

There is a character that is mostly punctuation, but that can also influence the nature of some accents occurring in the word before. Such a character is a hybrid between punctuation and accent. See also the documentation of the BHSA about cantillation.

transcription glyph phonetic remarks name unicode
05 ׀ *punctuation* paseq 05C0

Accents

Details

Some accents play a role in deciding whether a schwa is silent or mobile and whether a qamets is gadol or qatan. In the phonetics those accents appear as ˈ or ˌ. Implied accents are also added.

transcription glyph phonetic remarks name unicode
94 ֧ ˈ *accent* darga 05A7
13 ֭ ˈ *accent* dehi 05AD
92 ֑ ˈ *accent* etnahta 0591
61 ֜ ˈ *accent* geresh 059C
11 ֝ ˈ *accent* geresh muqdam 059D
62 ֞ ˈ *accent* gershayim 059E
64 ֬ ˈ *accent* iluy 05AC
70 ֤ ˈ *accent* mahapakh 05A4
71 ֥ ˌ *accent* merkha 05A5
72 ֦ ˈ *accent* merkha kefula 05A6
74 ֣ ˈ *accent* munah 05A3
60 ֫ ˈ *accent* ole 05AB
03 ֙ *accent* pashta 0599
83 ֡ ˈ *accent* pazer 05A1
33 ֨ ˈ *accent* qadma 05A8
63 ֨ ˌ *accent* qadma 05A8
84 ֟ ˈ *accent* qarney para 059F
81 ֗ ˈ *accent* revia 0597
01 ֒ *accent* segol 0592
65 ֓ ˈ *accent* shalshelet 0593
04 ֩ *accent* telisha qetana 05A9
24 ֩ *accent* telisha qetana 05A9
14 ֠ *accent* telisha gedola 05A0
44 ֠ *accent* telisha gedola 05A0
91 ֛ ˈ *accent* tevir 059B
73 ֖ ˌ *accent* tipeha 0596
93 ֪ ˈ *accent* yerah ben yomo 05AA
10 ֚ ˈ *accent* yetiv 059A
80 ֔ ˈ *accent* zaqef qatan 0594
85 ֕ ˈ *accent* zaqef gadol 0595
82 ֘ ˈ *accent* zarqa 0598
02 ֮ ˈ *accent* zinor 05AE

Numerals

Details

These signs occur in the Dead Sea scrolls. We represent them with conventional Hebrew characters for numbers and use the geresh accent or another accent to mark the letter as a numeral.

The ETCBC codes are obtained by translating back from the unicode.

transcription (ETCBC) transcription (Abegg) glyph remarks name
>' A א֜ *number* 1
>52 å אׄ alternative for 1, often at the end of a number, we use the upper dot to distinguish it from the other 1 *number* 1
>53 B אׅ alternative for 1, often at the end of a number, we use the lower dot to distinguish it from the other 1 *number* 1
>35 אֽ alternative for 1, often at the end of a number, we use the meteg to distinguish it from the other 1 *number* 1
J' C י֜ *number* 10
k' D ך֜ *number* 20
Q' F ק֜ *number* 100
& + ־ we use the maqaf to represent addition between numbers add

Text-critical

Details

These signs occur in the Dead Sea scrolls. They are used to indicate uncertainty and editing acts by ancient scribes or modern editors. They do not have an associated glyph in Unicode.

The ETCBC does not have codes for them, but we propose an ETCBC-compatible encoding for them. The ETCBC codes are surrounded by space, except for the brackets, where a space at the side of the ( or ) is not necessary.

Codes that are marked as flag apply to the preceding character.

Codes that are marked as brackets apply to the material within them.

transcription (Abegg) transcription (etcbc) remarks name
0 ε token missing
? ? token uncertain (degree 1)
\ # token uncertain (degree 2)
#? token uncertain (degree 3)
Ø ? flag, applies to preceding character uncertain (degree 1)
« # flag, applies to preceding character uncertain (degree 2)
» #? flag, applies to preceding character uncertain (degree 3)
| ## flag, applies to preceding character uncertain (degree 4)
« » (# #) brackets uncertain (degree 2)
≤ ≥ (- -) brackets vacat (empty space)
( ) ( ) brackets alternative
[ ] [ ] brackets reconstruction (modern)
{ } { } brackets removed (modern)
{{ }} {{ }} brackets removed (ancient)
< > (< >) brackets correction (modern)
<< >> (<< >>) brackets correction (ancient)
^ ^ (^ ^) brackets correction (supralinear, ancient)